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Glossary

Active Transportation: As defined in the Provincial Policy Statement (2014) human-powered travel, including but not limited to, walking, cycling, inline skating and travel with the use of mobility aids, including motorized wheelchairs and other power-assisted devices moving at a comparable speed.

Autonomous Vehicles (AVs): Vehicles including cars and buses using an assortment of on-vehicle sensors and connected technology to take over some or all aspects of the task of driving. Partially automated vehicle features include parking, lane-change assistance, and collision avoidance. Fully automated vehicles operate all driving functions without the intervention of a human driver. May be personally-owned (PAVs) or shared (SAVs). Can include driverless taxis. See Connected Vehicles.

Big data: Large datasets that support predictive and user behaviour analytics, including gee-referencing of data about individual travel patterns. Big data can inform transportation research and analysis, and provide personalized products and services.

Bike Lane: A bike lane on an urban roadway that is delineated by a lane line on pavement and with signage; typically operates one-way for exclusive use by cyclists, regulated by local by-law and the Highway Traffic Act. "Bike lane" is an alternative to the variety of terms used by GTHA municipalities including "bicycle lane", "Class 11 pathway", and "delineated cycle lane". See Separated Bike Lane.

Bike-Sharing: A type of Shared Mobility that refers to the shared use of a bicycle or fleet of bicycles by multiple users that are available on­ demand and allow for flexible rental periods and payment structures (e.g. single-use or as part of a subscription). Typically, users access bikes through a network of tech-enabled stations which are often located in higher density areas or near transit stations. See Shared Mobility and First Mile-Last Mile.

Bus Rapid Transit (BRT): Transit infrastructure and service with buses running in their own exclusive right-of-way, fully separated from traffic, with signal priority measures in place and longer spacing between stops than conventional bus routes (typically 500 metres - 1 kilometre) to maintain higher average speeds and ensure reliability of the service. See Regional Express Bus, Priority Bus and Priority Transit Corridor.

Car-Sharing: A type of Shared Mobility that provides members with 24-hour access to a fleet of vehicles that are available on-demand and allow for flexible rental periods and payment structures (e.g. single­ use or as part of a subscription). Services can be two-way, requiring customers to borrow and return the vehicle to the same location, or one-way, allowing customers to pick up and drop off vehicles at different locations within a designated service area. See Shared Mobility.

Connected Vehicles: Vehicles that are enabled to communicate with other vehicles, mobile electronic devices, and connected road infrastructure (e.g., traffic signals). Many vehicles already use some connected technology, such as GPS-enabled navigation systems. See Autonomous Vehicles, Intelligent Transportation Systems, and Transportation Systems Management.

Complete Communities: As in the Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe (2017), places such as mixed-use neighbourhoods or other areas within cities, towns, and settlement areas that offer and support opportunities for people of all ages and abilities to conveniently access most of the necessities for daily living, including an appropriate mix of jobs, local stores, and services, a full range of housing, transportation options and public service facilities. Complete communities are age­ friendly and may take different shapes and forms appropriate to their contexts.

Complete Streets: As in the Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe (2017), streets planned to balance the needs of all road users, including pedestrians, cyclists, transit-users, and motorists. A complete streets approach also involves design, operation, and maintenance of roadways to enable safe, convenient, and comfortable travel and access for users of all ages and abilities regardless of their mode of transportation.

Design Excellence: A strategy to deliver seamless delivery of integrated transportation systems to the traveler. It is inclusive of architecture, urban design, landscape architecture, signage and wayfinding, and art integration. Design Excellence encompasses all of the touch points of the traveller including delivery of: universal access and accessibility, fare integration, safety and comfort, trip planning and integrated technology.

First Mile-Last Mile (FMLM): Describes the challenge of getting people to and from transit stations, mobility hubs, and fixed-route transit services to and from their home or workplace without the use of a private automobile. Alternatives to car trips include a variety of options such as improved sidewalks and cycling infrastructure, car-sharing, bike sharing, shuttle buses, taxis and on-demand services.

Freight Cluster: As per Ontario's Freight-Supportive Guidelines (2016), groupings of similar uses intended to minimize potential conflicts along freight routes, corridors, and the type of on-coming traffic that transport trucks may encounter when exiting or entering a site.

Frequent Rapid Transit Network (FRTN): A seamless and reliable network of transit services running at least every 10-15 minutes all­ day, every day. The FRTN will consist of transit routes and corridors that ensure fast and reliable service through the use of dedicated infrastructure, design elements, and other supporting investments as required (e.g., full grade separation, exclusive right-of-way, wider stop spacing than conventional transit routes, signal priority, or other transportation systems management measures). The FRTN proposed for the GTHA will allow transit users to make efficient transfers between routes on the network, which includes subways, transitways, Bus Rapid Transit, Light Rail Transit, Regional Express Rail, and Priority Bus corridors. Frequent Rapid Transit Network updates the term "Regional Rapid Transit" used in The Big Move (2008) Regional Transportation Plan.

Greater Golden Horseshoe (GGH): As in the Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe (2017), the geographic area identified as the Greater Golden Horseshoe Growth Plan area in Ontario Regulation 416/05 under the Places to Grow Act, 2005.

Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe: A long-term provincial plan that works together with the Greenbelt Plan, the Oak Ridges Moraine Conservation Plan and the Niagara Escarpment Plan to manage growth, build complete communities, curb sprawl and protect the natural environment.

High Occupancy Toll (HOT) Lane: A High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) lane that single occupant vehicles are also permitted to use by paying a toll. See High Occupancy Vehicle Lane.

High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lane: A lane of roadway that is typically designated for use only by vehicles with a specified minimum number of occupants (including transit vehicles). May also be used to support Priority Bus routes.

Integrated Mobility: A practice that describes the unification of different transportation modes and mobility providers into a network connecting travelers from their trip origin to their final destination through seamless connections supported by the use of barrier- free planning, design, infrastructure and technology solutions (e.g. integrated payment, Mobility as a Service, real-time information and trip planning across multiple modes). See Mobility as a Service and New Mobility.

Intelligent Transportation System (ITS): A form of Transportation Systems Management that uses real-time information technology to provide traffic-responsive, area-wide traffic control and information that allows transportation providers to optimize system operations and enables travellers to use the system more efficiently, effectively, and conveniently. ITS includes planning, deployment, integration and operations to provide a cohesive, end-to-end solution for all transportation users, including traveller information and electronic payment. See Transit Priority Measures and Transportation Systems Management.

lntermodal Facilities: As in Ontario's Freight-Supportive Guidelines (2016), a location where transfers between modes can be made as part of a single journey. For example, a typical freight intermodal facility is a rail yard where containers are transferred between trucks and trains.

Light Rail Transit (LRT): Transit infrastructure and services consisting of light rail vehicles running in an exclusive right-of-way, fully separated from traffic, with signal priority measures in place and longer spacing between stops than conventional transit routes (typically 500 metres - 1 kilometre) to maintain higher average speeds and ensure reliability of the service. See Priority Transit Corridor.

Local Transit: A passenger transit system that is operated principally within an upper-tier, lower-tier or single-tier municipality. Public transit in the GTHA is provided by Burlington Transit, Brampton Transit, Durham Region Transit, GO Transit, Hamilton Street Railway, Milton Transit, MiWay (Mississauga Transit), Oakville Transit, the Toronto Transit Commission and York Region TransiWIVA.

Low-Carbon: In the transportation sector, refers to vehicles that produce minimal greenhouse gas emissions through improved efficiency and adoption of electric and alternative-fuel vehicle technologies. Reducing Greenhouse Gas emissions from the transportation sector typically focusses on minimizing travel and shifting to more environmentally sustainable modes, technologies, and fuels.

Mobility as a Service: A New Mobility technology that describes the integration of various transport services including public transit, bike or car-sharing, taxis, ride-sourcing and other forms of Shared Mobility that are bundled together and consumed on a subscription basis to meet the particular needs of individuals. See New Mobility and Shared Mobility.

Major Transit Station Area: As in the Growth Plan for the GGH (2017), the area including and around any existing or planned higher order transit station or stop within a settlement area; or the area including and around a major bus depot in an urban core. Major transit station areas generally are defined as the area within an approximate 500 m radius of a transit station, representing about a 10-minute walk. See Mobility Hubs.

Micro-transit: A type of Shared Mobility that refers to small scale, flexible transportation services, using shuttles or vans, to provide rides that are often ordered on-demand with a mobile app or website with dynamically-generated, rather than fixed, routes. Multiple passengers share trips with others who have similar routes or dest inati ons. See Shared Mobility and On-Demand Mobility.

Mobility Hubs: Major Transit Station Areas where multiple modes of transportation meet and have a high-density mix of land uses that encourages and supports transit use and active transp ortatio n. Mobility hubs are at the intersection of two or more Frequent Rapid Transit Network routes, are designed to support a high number of transit boardings and alightings, and facilitate seamless, efficient transfers between modes. They have a high concentration of jobs, residences, public services, and other transit-supportive land uses, or the potential to develop into areas with a high-density of mixed land uses. See Major Transit Station Area.

Mode Share: The percentage of person-trips made by one mode of travel relative to the total number of trips made by all modes.

Multi-modal: More than one mode of transportation used for a trip, such as cycling or driving to a transit station.

New Mobility: A term to describe the suite of emerging transportation services and that are enabled through the development and convergence of technologies (e.g. smartphones, real-time data, autonomous and connected vehicles) and business models (e.g. Shared Mobility and Mobility-as-a-Service). See Autonomous Vehicles, Connected Vehicles, Mobility-as-a-Service, and Shared Mobility.

On-Demand Mobility: Shared mobility services that are provided to the user within a short time period upon request, either by telephone or mobile electronic device. See Shared Mobility.

Priority Bus: Bus transit service running fully or partially in a semi­ exclusive right-of-way, providing some protection from mixed-traffic, and using transit priority measures and other design elements to ensure reliability and maintain higher than average speeds (e.g. signal priority, queue jump lanes, HOV lanes and wider spacing between stops). Service operates reliably and frequently (at least every 15 minutes) all-day without the need for dedicated infrastructure. See Bus Rapid Transit, Regional Express Bus, Frequent Rapid Transit Network, and Priority Transit Corridor.

Priority Transit Corridor: As in the Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe (2017), Schedule 5, or as further identified by the Province for the purpose of implementing the Growth Plan. Also see Growth Plan Policy 2.24 "Transit Corridors and Station Areas".

Rail Facilities: Rail corridors, rail sidings, train stations, intermodal facilities, rail yards and associated uses, and designated lands for future rail facilities. See lntermodal Facilities.

Regional Cycling Network: A network of commuter-oriented cycling routes and dedicated infrastructure that supports longer-distance trips (typically greater than 5 km), supports cycling trips across municipal boundaries and between Urban Growth Centres, and provides connections to rapid transit stations. Infrastructure may include bike lanes, cycle tracks, and multi-use trails.

Regional Express Bus: Transit service consisting of buses running primarily along highways and typically connecting two or more significant destinations separated by longer distances than would normally be travelled on a conventional transit route. Operating speeds are typically significantly higher than conventional transit, with limited stops or wider stop spacing (typically 2-8 km). Significant destinations include urban centres, transportation hubs and large institutions. Express buses may also run along heavily travelled corridors to provide faster service over long distances. See Bus Rapid Transit, Priority Bus and Priority Transit Corridors.

Regional Express Rail (RER): The ten-year (to 2024) GO Regional Express Rail (RER) program is a suite of infrastructure and service improvements that will transform GO rail from a largely commuter system to a comprehensive regional rapid transit service. Infrastructure expansion, including new tracks, bridges, signals and rolling stock, will provide for increased peak period service on all existing GO rail routes and the addition electric train service running every 15-minutes or better in both directions throughout the day on five of seven corridors. By 2024, peak period train service will double and off-peak train service will quadruple.

Regional Transportation System: As in the Provincial Policy Statement, 2014, the multi-modal transportation system, including all of the municipalities of the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area and the broader GO Transit service area, consisting of services and infrastructure such as, "facilities, corridors and rights-of-way for the movement of people and goods, and associated transportation facilities including transit stops and stations, sidewalks, cycle lanes, bus lanes, high occupancy vehicle lanes, rail facilities, parking facilities, park-and-ride lots, service centres, rest stops, vehicle inspection stations, inter-modal facilities, harbours, airports, marine facilities, ferries, canals and associated facilities such as storage and maintenance".

Ride-sourcing: A type of Shared Mobility that refers to service providers that use an online or app-based platform to connect passengers with drivers of personal, non-commercial vehicles. Operators can also be known as Transportation Network Companies or Private Transportation Companies. See Shared Mobility and On­ Demand Mobility.

Ride-sharing: A type of Shared Mobility that refers to both traditional carpooling and dynamic carpooling where passengers with a common destination share a vehicle and the costs of a trip. Traditional carpool drivers provide a pre-organized ride for a passenger based on having a common final destination, such as a shared workplace. Dynamic carpooling relies on real-time connectivity between drivers and passengers to book trips on-demand based on the passenger having an origin and destination that aligns with a driver's pre-determined route. See Shared Mobility and On-Demand Mobility.

Separated Bike Lane: A bike lane that is protected from general­ purpose travel lanes on a roadway by a partial or full barrier. Separated bike lanes are often describe as "dedicated" or "protected" bike lanes or "cycle tracks". See Bike Lane.

Shared Mobility: A type of New Mobility that refers to a broad set of transportation services and business models that are shared among users, such as Bike-Sharing, Car-Sharing, Micro-Transit, Ride-Sourcing, and Ride-Sharing. See New Mobility.

Transit Priority Measures: Techniques designed to minimize delays for buses or rail vehicles at intersections and along congested roads to provide a faster, more reliable trip. Transit priority measures include HOV lanes, bus-only lanes, signal priority and queue jump lanes. See Intelligent Transportation Systems, Priority Transit Corridor and Transportation Systems Management.

Transit-Supportive Development: Land uses and urban form designed to make transit more viable and attractive. It often refers to compact, mixed-use development that has a high level of employment and residential density.

Transportation Demand Management (TDM): As in the Provincial Policy Statement (2014), a set of strategies that result in more efficient use of the transportation system by influencing travel behaviour by mode, time of day, frequency, trip length, regulation, route, or cost. Examples include: carpooling, vanpooling, and shuttle buses; parking management; site design and on-site facilities that support transit and walking; bicycle facilities and programs; pricing (road tolls and/ or transit discounts); flexible working hours and telecommuting; high occupancy vehicle lanes; park-and-ride; incentives for ride-sharing, using transit, walking and cycling initiatives to discourage drive-alone trips.

Transportation Systems Management (TSM): A set of operational strategies that improve the safety, performance and efficiency of the existing transportation network and infrastructure through the management and operation of integrated, intermodal surface transportation systems, including technology, services, and processes. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is considered a specific form of TSM. See Intelligent Transportation Systems.

Urban Growth Centres (UGCs): As in the Growth Plan for the Greater Golden Horseshoe (2017), Schedule 4, twenty-five downtown areas that are intended to be mixed-use, high-density, and transit-supportive focal points for residential and employment growth and intensification in a municipality.

Vision Zero: Vision Zero aims to achieve transportation systems with no fatalities or serious injuries using a variety of interventions. These include engineering for safer street design, enforcing laws such as speeding or impairment that have a significant correlation to fatalities or major injuries, and educating drivers, cyclists and pedestrians on safety measures and the impacts of law-breaking.

Vehicle Kilometres Travelled (VKT): A measure of roadway use, commonly used in estimating congestion, that reflects the distance that an individual drives, or, more typically, the cumulative distance driven by all vehicles in an urban region during a specified period of time. VKT can reflect the link between land use and transportation. Land uses that are further away from each other result in longer trip lengths, more traffic on roadways and more vehicle kilometres travelled, for example.

Wayfinding: An orientation system consisting of signage, mapping, and the provision of other information that enables travellers to choose a preferred route, monitor their journey and recognize when they have arrived. Wayfinding systems may be designed to guide people through a complex built environment such as a transportation hub or as an aid to navigate a transit or cycling network.